Different sources of loanwords
English words with Chinese origin usually have different characteristics depending how the words were spread to the West. Despite the increasingly widespread use of Mandarin among Chinese people, English words that are based on Mandarin are relatively scarce.
Some words spread to the West ...
*via the silk road, e.g. silk. These have heavy influence from countries along the silk road.
*via the who lived in China. These have heavy Latin influence due the and missionaries.
*via the s who lived in China. These have heavy influence due to the long history of involvement in Sinology.
*via the trade route, e.g. tea, , cumshaw etc. These have heavy influence from the in seaports.
*via the early immigrants to the in the gold rush era, e.g. chop suey. These have heavy influence from the .
*via the multi-national colonization of Shanghai. These have influence from many European countries, also Japan.
*via the colonisation of Hong Kong, e.g. . These have heavy influence from .
*via modern international communication especially after the 1970s when the People's Republic of China opened its iron curtain to let her people emigrate to various countries, e.g. , feng shui etc. These have heavy influence from .
*via Japanese and Korean and Vietnamese. These languages have borrowed large amounts of Chinese vocabulary in the past, written in the form of Chinese characters. The pronunciation of such loanwords is not based directly on Chinese, but on the local pronunciation of Chinese loanwords in these languages, known as , , and . In addition, the individual characters were extensively used as building blocks for local neologisms with no counterpart in the original Chinese, resulting in words whose relationship to the Chinese language is similar to the relationship between new Latinate words and Latin. Such words are excluded from the list.
Though all these following terms originated from China, the spelling of the English words depends on which language the transliterations came from.
; Brainwashing :
Etymology: translation of Chinese
1 : a forcible indoctrination to induce someone to give up basic political, social, or religious beliefs and attitudes and to accept contrasting regimented ideas
2 : persuasion by propaganda or salesmanship
–brainwash transitive verb
Brainwashing is translated from Chinese literally, word by word.
脑 means brain, 洗 means wash.
The word had then been put together in the English language way--Brainwashing.
; Bok choy : 白菜 （baakchoi), a Chinese cabbage: literally 'white vegetable'
; Char : colloquial English word for 'tea', originally from Chinese 茶 .
; Cheongsam : from Cantonese 長衫 , lit. long clothes.
; China : via Latin from the name of the Ch'in Dynasty 秦
; Chop chop : from Cantonese ''gup'' 急, lit. hurry, urgent
; : from Chinese Pidgin English ''chop chop''.
; Chop suey : from Cantonese 雜碎 , lit. mixed pieces
; Chow : from Chinese Pidgin English chowchow which means food, perhaps based on Cantonese 炒, lit. stir fry
; Chow chow : any of a breed of heavy-coated blocky dogs of Chinese origin
; Chow mein : from Taishanese 炒麵 , lit. stir fried noodle, when the first Chinese immigrants, from Taishan came to the United States.
; Confucianism : from Confucius, Latinized form of 孔夫子 'Master Kong'
; Coolie : questionably Chinese 苦力, lit. suffering labor. Some dictionaries say the word came from Hindi ''kull''.
; Cumshaw : from Amoy 感謝, feeling gratitude
; Dalai Lama : the lama who is the chief spiritual adviser of the Dalai Lama. 班禅喇嘛-- Dalai Lama Etymology -- Panchen from Chinese b*nch*n Date-- 1794. The word Lama is used in an English translation of Martini’s Conquest of China in 1654; Dalai-lama in 1698.
; Dim sum and Dim sim : from Cantonese 點心 , lit. little heart
; Doufu and Doufu : from Mandarin 豆腐 , lit. beancurd
; Fan-tan : from Cantonese 番攤 , lit. turns scattering
; Feng shui : from ''feng'', wind and ''shui'', water 風水
; Foo dog : from Mandarin 佛 ''fó'' Buddha
; Ginkgo : mistransliteration of 銀杏 in Japanese
; Ginseng : from Mandarin 人參 , name of the plant. Some say the word came via Japanese , although 人参 now means 'carrot' in Japanese; ginseng is 朝鮮人参 .
; : From the Japanese name ''igo'' 囲碁 of the Chinese board game. Chinese 围棋, Mandarin: .
; Gung-ho : from Mandarin 工合, short for 工業合作社
; Gyoza : Japanese ギョーザ, gairaigo from Chinese 餃子 , stuffed dumpling. Gyoza refers to the style found in Japan.
; Hoisin : from Cantonese 海鮮 , lit. seafood
; Kanji : Japanese name for Chinese characters: 漢字, lit. Chinese characters. Chinese: Hanzi.
; Kaolin : from 高嶺, lit. high mountain peak
; Keemun : kind of tea, 祁門 Mandarin ''qímén''
; Ketchup : possibly from Cantonese or Amoy 茄汁, lit. tomato sauce/juice
; Koan : Japanese 公案 ''kōan'', from Chinese 公案 , lit. public record
; Kowtow : from Cantonese 叩頭, lit. knock head
; Kumquat or cumquat: from Cantonese name of the fruit 柑橘
; Kung fu : the English term to collectively describe Chinese martial arts; from Cantonese 功夫 , lit. efforts
; Lo mein : from Cantonese 撈麵 , lit. scooped noodle
; Longan : from Cantonese 龍眼, name of the fruit
; Loquat : from Cantonese 蘆橘, old name of the fruit
; Lychee : from Cantonese 荔枝 , name of the fruit
; Mao-tai or moutai: from Mandarin 茅台酒 , liquor from Maotai
; Mahjong : from Cantonese 麻將 , lit. the mahjong game
; Mu shu : from Mandarin 木須 , lit. wood shredded
; Nunchaku : Okinawan Japanese, from Min 雙節棍, lit. double jointed sticks
; : from Amoy 烏龍, lit. dark dragon
; : from Amoy 白毫, lit. white downy hair
; Paigow : from Cantonese 排九, a gambling game
; Pinyin : from Mandarin 拼音, lit. put together sounds
; Qi : from Mandarin 氣 , spirit
; Qipao : from 旗袍 , female traditional Chinese clothing
; Ramen : Japanese ラーメン, gairaigo, from Chinese 拉麵 lit. pulled noodle. Ramen refers to a particular style flavored to Japanese taste and is somewhat different from Chinese lamian.
; Sampan : from Cantonese 舢舨, the name of such vessel.
; Shar Pei : from Cantonese 沙皮, lit. sand skin.
; Shih Tzu : from Mandarin 獅子狗, lit. Chinese lion dog
; Shogun : Japanese 将軍, from Chinese 將軍, lit. general military. The full title in Japanese was ''Seii Taishōgun'' , "generalissimo who overcomes the barbarians"
; shantung: from Mandarin 山東，"shantung" is a silk fabric made from the silk of wild silkworms and is usually undyed.
; Shaolin : from Mandarin 少林, One of the most important Kungfu clans.
; Sifu : from Cantonese 师傅, , master.
; Silk : possibly from 'si' 絲, lit. silk
; Souchong : from Cantonese 小種茶 , lit. small kind tea
; : From Japanese shoyu 醤油, Chinese 醬油, .
; : from Mandarin 太極
; Tai-Pan : from Cantonese 大班 , lit. big rank
; Tangram : from Chinese Tang + English gram
; Tao and Taoism : from Mandarin 道 ''dào''
; Tea : from Amoy 茶
; Tofu : Japanese 豆腐, lit. bean rot. from Chinese 豆腐 .
; : from Cantonese 堂
; Tycoon : via Japanese 大官, lit. high official; or 大君, lit. great nobleman
; Typhoon : 颱風 not to be confused with the monster typhon. See also other possible origin.
; Wok : from Cantonese 鑊
; Won ton : from Cantonese 雲吞 , lit. 'cloud swallow' as a description of its shape, similar to Mandarin 餛飩
; : from Mandarin 武術, lit. martial arts
; Wuxia : from Mandarin 武侠 , lit. martial arts and chivalrous
; Yamen : from Mandarin 衙門, lit. court
; Yen : from Cantonese 癮, lit. addiction
; Yen : Japanese 円 ''en'', from Chinese 圓 , lit. round, name of currency unit
; Yin Yang : 陰陽 from Mandarin 'Yin' meaning feminine, dark and 'Yang' meaning masculine and bright
; Zen : Japanese 禅, from Chinese 禪 , originally from Sanskrit / Pali jhāna.